A major topic of nanomedicine research is drug delivery using nanoparticles and conjugates (Nano Drug Delivery Systems NDDs). The potential of nanoparticles to preferentially cross cell membranes and deliver drugs to target areas has sparked interest in this field. The recent discovery of multifunctional nanoparticles with multiple end-uses or properties (e.g., diagnosis and therapy with a single binding) has expanded the potential for translational nanomedicine applications. Nanoparticle designs vary by delivery method. Oral drug delivery using nanosystems such as multi-component microemulsions has been demonstrated for the delivery of drug-resistant anticancer therapies (drug conjugate uptake), and for psychotropic drug direct ingestion of drugs or drug nanocomplexes in the oral cavity. (e.g., chewing gum).